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Elucidating the structure of dna

Like many other nuclear physicists, he became disillusioned with his subject when it was applied to the creation of the atomic bomb; he turned instead to biophysics, working with his Cambridge mentor, John T.Randall—who had undergone a similar conversion—first at the University of St.There is a Nobel Prize stipulation that states “in no case may a prize amount be divided between more than three persons.” The fact she died before the prize was awarded may also have been a factor, although the stipulation against posthumous awards was not instated until 1974.The molecule that is the basis for heredity, DNA, contains the patterns for constructing proteins in the body, including the various enzymes.There she performed fundamental investigations on the properties of coal and graphite.She returned briefly to Cambridge, where she presented a dissertation based on this work and was granted a Ph D in physical chemistry.She was born into a prominent London banking family, where all the children—girls and boys—were encouraged to develop their individual aptitudes.She attended Newnham College, one of the women’s colleges at Cambridge University.

Modern biotechnology also has its basis in the structural knowledge of DNA—in this case the scientist’s ability to modify the DNA of host cells that will then produce a desired product, for example, insulin.At King’s College London, Rosalind Franklin obtained images of DNA using X-ray crystallography, an idea first broached by Maurice Wilkins.Franklin’s images allowed James Watson and Francis Crick to create their famous two-strand, or double-helix, model. 1928), Crick (1916–2004), and Wilkins (1916–2004) jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their 1953 determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).The background for the work of the four scientists was formed by several scientific breakthroughs: the progress made by X-ray crystallographers in studying organic macromolecules; the growing evidence supplied by geneticists that it was DNA, not protein, in chromosomes that was responsible for heredity; Erwin Chargaff’s experimental finding that there are equal numbers of A and T bases and of G and C bases in DNA; and Linus Pauling’s discovery that the molecules of some proteins have helical shapes—arrived at through the use of atomic models and a keen knowledge of the possible disposition of various atoms.Of the four DNA researchers, only Rosalind Franklin had any degrees in chemistry.

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Already at work at King’s College was Maurice Wilkins, a New Zealand–born but Cambridge-educated physicist.

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